Jump to content

Thermobaric weapon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Thermobaric bombs)

Blast from a US Navy fuel–air explosive used against a decommissioned ship, USS McNulty, 1972

A thermobaric weapon, also called an aerosol bomb, or a vacuum bomb,[1] is a type of explosive munition that works by dispersing an aerosol cloud of gas, liquid or powdered explosive.[2][3] The fuel is usually a single compound, rather than a mixture of multiple molecules.[4] Many types of thermobaric weapons can be fitted to hand-held launchers,[5][6] and can also be launched from airplanes.


The term thermobaric is derived from the Greek words for 'heat' and 'pressure': thermobarikos (θερμοβαρικός), from thermos (θερμός) 'hot' + baros (βάρος) 'weight, pressure' + suffix -ikos (-ικός) '-ic'.

Other terms used for the family of weapons are high-impulse thermobaric weapons, heat and pressure weapons, vacuum bombs, and fuel-air explosives (FAE).


Most conventional explosives consist of a fueloxidizer premix, but thermobaric weapons consist only of fuel and as a result are significantly more energetic than conventional explosives of equal weight.[7] Their reliance on atmospheric oxygen makes them unsuitable for use under water, at high altitude, and in adverse weather. They are, however, considerably more effective when used in enclosed spaces such as tunnels, buildings, and non-hermetically sealed field fortifications (foxholes, covered slit trenches, bunkers).[8][9]

The initial explosive charge detonates as it hits its target, opening the container and dispersing the fuel mixture as a cloud.[10] The typical blast wave of a thermobaric weapon lasts significantly longer than that of a conventional explosive.

In contrast to an explosive that uses oxidation in a confined region to produce a blast front emanating from a single source, a thermobaric flame front accelerates to a large volume, which produces pressure fronts within the mixture of fuel and oxidant and then also in the surrounding air.[11]

Thermobaric explosives apply the principles underlying accidental unconfined vapor cloud explosions, which include those from dispersions of flammable dusts and droplets.[12] Such dust explosions happened most often in flour mills and their storage containers, grain bins (corn silos etc), and later in coal mines, prior to the 20th century. Accidental unconfined vapor cloud explosions now happen most often in partially or completely empty oil tankers, refinery tanks, and vessels, such as the Buncefield fire in the United Kingdom in 2005, where the blast wave woke people 150 kilometres (93 mi) from its center.[13]

A typical weapon consists of a container packed with a fuel substance, the center of which has a small conventional-explosive "scatter charge". Fuels are chosen on the basis of the exothermicity of their oxidation, ranging from powdered metals, such as aluminum or magnesium, to organic materials, possibly with a self-contained partial oxidant.[14] The most recent development involves the use of nanofuels.[15][16]

A thermobaric bomb's effective yield depends on a combination of a number of factors such as how well the fuel is dispersed, how rapidly it mixes with the surrounding atmosphere and the initiation of the igniter and its position relative to the container of fuel. In some designs, strong munitions cases allow the blast pressure to be contained long enough for the fuel to be heated well above its autoignition temperature so that once the container bursts, the superheated fuel autoignites progressively as it comes into contact with atmospheric oxygen.[17] Conventional upper and lower limits of flammability apply to such weapons. Close in, blast from the dispersal charge, compressing and heating the surrounding atmosphere, has some influence on the lower limit. The upper limit has been demonstrated to influence the ignition of fogs above pools of oil strongly.[18] That weakness may be eliminated by designs in which the fuel is preheated well above its ignition temperature so that its cooling during its dispersion still results in a minimal ignition delay on mixing. The continual combustion of the outer layer of fuel molecules, as they come into contact with the air, generates added heat which maintains the temperature of the interior of the fireball, and thus sustains the detonation.[19]

In confinement, a series of reflective shock waves is generated,[20][21] which maintain the fireball and can extend its duration to between 10 and 50 ms as exothermic recombination reactions occur.[22] Further damage can result as the gases cool and pressure drops sharply, leading to a partial vacuum. This rarefaction effect has given rise to the misnomer "vacuum bomb". Piston-type afterburning[clarification needed] is also believed to occur in such structures, as flame-fronts accelerate through it.[23]

Fuel–air explosive[edit]

A fuel–air explosive (FAE) device consists of a container of fuel and two separate explosive charges. After the munition is dropped or fired, the first explosive charge bursts open the container at a predetermined height and disperses the fuel in a cloud that mixes with atmospheric oxygen (the size of the cloud varies with the size of the munition). The cloud of fuel flows around objects and into structures. The second charge then detonates the cloud and creates a massive blast wave. The blast wave can destroy reinforced buildings, equipment, and kill or injure people. The antipersonnel effect of the blast wave is more severe in foxholes and tunnels and in enclosed spaces, such as bunkers and caves.


Conventional countermeasures such as barriers (sandbags) and personnel armour are not effective against thermobaric weapons.[24] A Human Rights Watch report of 1 February 2000[25] quotes a study made by the US Defense Intelligence Agency:

The [blast] kill mechanism against living targets is unique—and unpleasant. ... What kills is the pressure wave, and more importantly, the subsequent rarefaction [vacuum], which ruptures the lungs. ... If the fuel deflagrates but does not detonate, victims will be severely burned and will probably also inhale the burning fuel. Since the most common FAE fuels, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, are highly toxic, undetonated FAE should prove as lethal to personnel caught within the cloud as with most chemical agents.

According to a US Central Intelligence Agency study,[25]

the effect of an FAE explosion within confined spaces is immense. Those near the ignition point are obliterated. Those at the fringe are likely to suffer many internal, invisible injuries, including burst eardrums and crushed inner ear organs, severe concussions, ruptured lungs and internal organs, and possibly blindness.

Another Defense Intelligence Agency document speculates that, because the "shock and pressure waves cause minimal damage to brain tissue ... it is possible that victims of FAEs are not rendered unconscious by the blast, but instead suffer for several seconds or minutes while they suffocate".[26]



The first attempts occurred during the First World War when incendiary shells (in German 'Brandgranate') used a slow but intense burning material, such as tar impregnated tissue and gunpowder dust. These shells burned for approximately 2 minutes after the shell exploded and spread the burning elements in every direction.[27] In World War II, the German Wehrmacht attempted to develop a vacuum bomb,[28] under the direction of the Austrian physicist Mario Zippermayr.[29]

United States[edit]

A BLU-72/B bomb on a USAF A-1E taking off from Nakhon Phanom in Thailand, in September 1968

FAEs were developed by the United States for use in the Vietnam War.[30] The CBU-55 FAE fuel-air cluster bomb was mostly developed by the US Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California.[31]

Current American FAE munitions include the following:

  • BLU-73 FAE I
  • BLU-95 500 lb (230 kg) (FAE-II)
  • BLU-96 2,000 lb (910 kg) (FAE-II)
  • CBU-72 FAE I
  • AGM-114 Hellfire missile
  • XM1060 grenade
  • SMAW-NE round for rocket launcher

The XM1060 40-mm grenade is a small-arms thermobaric device, which was fielded by US forces in Afghanistan in 2002, and proved to be popular against targets in enclosed spaces, such as caves.[32] Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the US Marine Corps has introduced a thermobaric "Novel Explosive" (SMAW-NE) round for the Mk 153 SMAW rocket launcher. One team of Marines reported that they had destroyed a large one-story masonry type building with one round from 100 yards (91 m).[33] The AGM-114N Hellfire II,[34] uses a Metal Augmented Charge (MAC) warhead, which contains a thermobaric explosive fill that uses aluminum powder coated or mixed with PTFE layered between the charge casing and a PBXN-112 explosive mixture. When the PBXN-112 detonates, the aluminum mixture is dispersed and rapidly burns. The result is a sustained high pressure that is extremely effective against people and structures.[35]

Soviet, later Russian[edit]

A Soviet RPO-A Shmel (Bumblebee) rocket and launcher

Following FAEs developed by the United States for use in the Vietnam War,[30] Soviet Union scientists quickly developed their own FAE weapons. Since Afghanistan, research and development has continued, and Russian forces now field a wide array of third-generation FAE warheads,[36] such as the RPO-A.[37][38] The Russian armed forces have developed thermobaric ammunition variants for several of their weapons, such as the TBG-7V thermobaric grenade with a lethality radius of 10 m (33 ft), which can be launched from a rocket propelled grenade (RPG) RPG-7. The GM-94 is a 43 mm (1.7 in) pump-action grenade launcher designed mainly to fire thermobaric grenades for close combat. The grenade weighed 250 g (8.8 oz) and contained 160 g (5.6 oz) of explosive, its lethality radius is 3 m (9.8 ft), but due to the deliberate "fragmentation-free" design of the grenade, a distance of 4 m (13 ft) is considered safe.[39]

The RPO-A and upgraded RPO-M are infantry-portable rocket propelled grenades designed to fire thermobaric rockets. The RPO-M, for instance, has a thermobaric warhead with a TNT equivalence of 5.5 kg (12 lb) and destructive capabilities similar to a 152 mm (6 in) high-explosive fragmentation artillery shell.[40][41] The RShG-1 and the RShG-2 are thermobaric variants of the RPG-27 and RPG-26 respectively. The RShG-1 is the more powerful variant, with its warhead having a 10-metre (33 ft) lethality radius and producing about the same effect as 6 kg (13 lb) of TNT.[42] The RMG is a further derivative of the RPG-26 that uses a tandem-charge warhead, with the precursor high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) warhead blasting an opening for the main thermobaric charge to enter and detonate inside.[43] The RMG's precursor HEAT warhead can penetrate 300 mm of reinforced concrete or over 100 mm of rolled homogeneous armour, thus allowing the 105 mm (4.1 in)-diameter thermobaric warhead to detonate inside.[44]

Other examples include the semi-automatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) or millimeter-wave active radar homing guided thermobaric variants of the 9M123 Khrizantema, the 9M133F-1 thermobaric warhead variant of the 9M133 Kornet, and the 9M131F thermobaric warhead variant of the 9K115-2 Metis-M, all of which are anti-tank missiles. The Kornet has since been upgraded to the Kornet-EM, and its thermobaric variant has a maximum range of 10 km (6 mi) and has a TNT equivalence of 7 kg (15 lb).[45] The 300 mm (12 in) 9M55S thermobaric cluster warhead rocket was built to be fired from the BM-30 Smerch MLRS. A dedicated carrier of thermobaric weapons is the purpose-built TOS-1, a 24-tube MLRS designed to fire 220 mm (8.7 in) thermobaric rockets. A full salvo from the TOS-1 will cover a rectangle 200 by 400 m (220 by 440 yd).[46] The Iskander-M theatre ballistic missile can also carry a 700 kg (1,540 lb) thermobaric warhead.[47]

Many Russian Air Force munitions have thermobaric variants. The 80 mm (3.1 in) S-8 rocket has the S-8DM and S-8DF thermobaric variants. The S-8's 122 mm (4.8 in) brother, the S-13, has the S-13D and S-13DF thermobaric variants. The S-13DF's warhead weighs only 32 kg (71 lb), but its power is equivalent to 40 kg (88 lb) of TNT. The KAB-500-OD variant of the KAB-500KR has a 250 kg (550 lb) thermobaric warhead. The ODAB-500PM and ODAB-500PMV[48] unguided bombs carry a 190 kg (420 lb) fuel–air explosive each. ODAB-1500 is a larger version of the bomb.[49] The KAB-1500S GLONASS/GPS guided 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) bomb also has a thermobaric variant. Its fireball will cover a 150 m (490 ft) radius and its lethal zone is a 500 m (1,600 ft) radius.[50] The 9M120 Ataka-V and the 9K114 Shturm ATGMs both have thermobaric variants.

In September 2007, Russia exploded the largest thermobaric weapon ever made, and claimed that its yield was equivalent to that of a nuclear weapon.[51][52] Russia named this particular ordnance the "Father of All Bombs" in response to the American-developed Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb, which has the backronym "Mother of All Bombs" and once held the title of the most powerful non-nuclear weapon in history.[53]


Iraq was alleged to possess the technology as early as 1990.[54]


Israel was alleged to possess thermobaric technology as early as 1990, according to Pentagon sources.[54]


In 1983, a program of military research was launched with collaboration between the Spanish Ministry of Defence (Directorate General of Armament and Material, DGAM) and Explosivos Alaveses (EXPAL) which was a subsidiary of Unión Explosivos Río Tinto (ERT). The goal of the programme was to develop a thermobaric bomb, the BEAC (Bomba Explosiva de Aire-Combustible).[54] A prototype was tested successfully in a foreign location out of safety and confidentiality concerns.[55] The Spanish Air and Space Force has an undetermined number of BEACs in its inventory.[56]


In 1996, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) began development of the PF-97 [zh], a portable thermobaric rocket launcher, based on the Soviet RPO-A Shmel. Introduced in 2000 it is reported to weigh 3.5 kg and contains 2.1 kg of thermobaric filler. An improved version called the PF-97A was introduced in 2008.[57]

China is reported to have other thermobaric weapons, including bombs, grenades and rockets.[58] Research continues on thermobaric weapons capable of reaching 2,500 degrees.[59][dubiousdiscuss]


In 2004, under request of EMAER (Estado Maior da Aeronáutica - Military Staff of Aeronautics) and DIRMAB (Diretoria de Material Aeronáutico e Bélico - Board of Aeronautical and Military Equipment) the IAE (Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaço - Institute of Aeronautics and Space) started developing a Thermobaric project called Trocano .

Trocano (tɾoˈkɐnu) is a thermobaric weapon similar in design to the United States' MOAB weapon or Russia's FOAB. Like the US weapon, the Trocano was designed to be pallet-loaded into a C-130 Hercules - "Hércules" (ˈɛʁkuleʃ) - aircraft, and deployed using a parachute to drag it from the C-130's cargo bay and separate from its pallet, at which point the bomb's own aerodynamics determine its drop trajectory.[60]

United Kingdom[edit]

In 2009, the British Ministry of Defence (MoD) acknowledged that Army Air Corps (AAC) AgustaWestland Apaches had used AGM-114 Hellfire missiles purchased from the United States against Taliban forces in Afghanistan. The MoD stated that 20 missiles, described as "blast fragmentation warheads", were used in 2008 and a further 20 in 2009. MoD officials told Guardian journalist Richard Norton-Taylor that the missiles were "particularly designed to take down structures and kill everyone in the buildings", as AAC AgustaWestland Apaches were previously equipped with weapon systems deemed ineffective to combat the Taliban. The MoD also stated that "British pilots' rules of engagement were strict and everything a pilot sees from the cockpit is recorded."[61]

In 2018, the MoD accidentally divulged the details of General Atomics MQ-9 Reapers utilised by the Royal Air Force (RAF) during the Syrian civil war, which revealed that the drones were equipped with AGM-114 Hellfire missiles. The MoD had sent a report to a British publication, Drone Wars, in response to a freedom of information request.[62] In the report, it was stated that AGM-114N Hellfire missiles which contained a thermobaric warhead were used by RAF attack drones in Syria.[63][64]


Based on the high-explosive squash head (HESH) round, a 120 mm thermobaric round was developed in the 2010s by the Indian Ministry of Defence. This HESH round packs thermobaric explosives into the tank shells to increase the effectiveness against enemy bunkers and light armoured vehicles.[65]

The design and the development of the round was taken up by Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE). The rounds were designed for the Arjun MBT. The TB rounds contains fuel rich explosive composition called thermobaric explosive. As the name implies, the shells, when they hit a target, produce blast overpressure and heat energy for hundreds of milliseconds. The overpressure and heat causes damage to enemy fortified structures like bunkers and buildings and for soft targets like enemy personnel and light armoured vehicles.[66][67]


The company Balkan Novoteh, formed in 2011, provides the Thermobaric hand grenade TG-1 to the market.[68]


In 2017 Ukroboronprom's Scientific Research Institute for Chemical Products in conjunction with Artem State Enterprise [uk] (aka Artem Holding Company) announced to the market its new product, the RGT-27S [uk]. These can be combined with the RPV-16 [uk] grenade launcher, a demonstration of which was witnessed by Oleksandr Turchynov. The grenades, of approximately 600 grams, "create a two second fire cloud with a volume of not less than 13 m³, inside of which the temperature reaches 2,500 degrees. This temperature allows not only for the destruction of the enemy, but are also able to disable lightly armored vehicles."[69][70] The firm showed them at the Azerbaijan International Defense Exhibition in 2018.[71]

In 2024, Ukraine started using drones rigged with thermobaric explosives to strike russian positions in the Russo-Ukrainian War. [72]


Attempted prohibitions[edit]

Mexico, Switzerland and Sweden presented in 1980 a joint motion to the United Nations to prohibit the use of thermobaric weapons, to no avail.[54]

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research categorizes these weapons as "enhanced blast weapons" and there was pressure to regulate these around 2010, again to no avail.[73]

Military use[edit]

United States[edit]

US Navy BLU-118B being prepared for shipping to Afghanistan, 5 March 2002

FAEs such as first-generation CBU-55 fuel–air weapons saw extensive use in the Vietnam War.[31] A second generation of FAE weapons were based on those, and were used by the United States in Iraq during Operation Desert Storm.[74] A total of 254 CBU-72s were dropped by the United States Marine Corps, mostly from A-6Es. They were targeted against mine fields and personnel in trenches, but were more useful as a psychological weapon.

The US military used thermobaric weapons in Afghanistan. On 3 March 2002, a single 2,000 lb (910 kg) laser guided thermobaric bomb was used by the United States Air Force against cave complexes in which Al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters had taken refuge in the Gardez region of Afghanistan.[75][76] The SMAW-NE was used by the US Marines during the First Battle of Fallujah and the Second Battle of Fallujah. The AGM-114N Hellfire II was first used by US forces in 2003 in Iraq.[77]

Soviet Union[edit]

FAEs were reportedly used against China in the 1969 Sino-Soviet border conflict.[78][28]

The TOS-1 system was test fired in Panjshir Valley during the Soviet–Afghan War in the late 1980s.[79] MiG-27 attack aircraft of the 134th APIB used ODAB-500S/P fuel–air bombs against Mujahideen forces in Afghanistan, but they were found to be unreliable and dangerous to ground crew.[80]


Russian military forces reportedly used ground-delivered thermobaric weapons during the Battle for Grozny (first and second Chechen Wars) to attack dug-in Chechen fighters. The use of TOS-1 heavy MLRS and "RPO-A Shmel" shoulder-fired rocket system during the Chechen Wars is reported to have occurred.[81] Russia used the RPO-A Shmel in the First Battle of Grozny, whereupon it was designated as a very useful round.[38]

It was thought that, during the September 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis, a multitude of handheld thermobaric weapons were used by the Russian Armed Forces in their efforts to retake the school. The RPO-A and either the TGB-7V thermobaric rocket from the RPG-7 or rockets from either the RShG-1 or the RShG-2 is claimed to have been used by the Spetsnaz during the initial storming of the school.[82][83][84] At least three and as many as nine RPO-A casings were later found at the positions of the Spetsnaz.[85][86] In July 2005 the Russian government admitted to the use of the RPO-A during the crisis.[87]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, CNN reported that Russian forces were moving thermobaric weapons into Ukraine.[88][89] On 28 February 2022, Ukraine's ambassador to the United States accused Russia of deploying a thermobaric bomb.[90][91]

United Kingdom[edit]

During the War in Afghanistan, British forces, including the Army Air Corps and Royal Air Force, used thermobaric AGM-114N Hellfire missiles against the Taliban.[61] In the Syrian civil war, British military drones used AGM-114N Hellfire missiles; in the first three months of 2018, British drones fired 92 Hellfire missiles in Syria.[92]


A report by Human Rights Watch claimed Israel has used thermobaric weaponry in the past including the 2008–2009 conflict in Gaza. Moreover, Euro-Med Human Rights Monitor states that Israel appears to be using thermobaric weaponry in the current 2023 Israel-Hamas War. Both organizations claim that the use of this weaponry in densely populated neighborhoods violates international humanitarian law due to its damaging affects on civilians and civilian structures.[93][94] The Eurasian Times reported that an Israeli AH-64D Apache attack helicopter was photographed with a 'mystery' warhead with a red band that was speculated to be a thermobaric warhead capable of destroying Hamas tunnels and multi-story buildings.[95][94]


Reports by the rebel fighters of the Free Syrian Army claim the Syrian Air Force used such weapons against residential area targets occupied by the rebel fighters, such as during the Battle of Aleppo[96] and in Kafar Batna.[97] Others contend that in 2012 the Syrian government used an ODAB-500PM [ru] bomb in Azaz.[98] A United Nations panel of human rights investigators reported that the Syrian government had used thermobaric bombs against the rebellious town of Al-Qusayr in March 2013.[99]

The Russia and Syrian governments have used thermobaric bombs and other thermobaric munitions during the Syrian civil war against insurgents and insurgent-held civilian areas.[100][98][101]


In March 2023 soldiers from the 59th Motorized Brigade of Ukraine showed off the destruction by a thermobaric RGT-27S2 hand grenade delivered by Mavic 3 drone of a derelict Russian infantry fighting vehicle.[102]

Non-state actor use[edit]

Thermobaric and fuel–air explosives have been used in guerrilla warfare since the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing in Lebanon, which used a gas-enhanced explosive mechanism that was probably propane, butane, or acetylene.[103] The explosive used by the bombers in the US 1993 World Trade Center bombing incorporated the FAE principle by using three tanks of bottled hydrogen gas to enhance the blast.[104][105]

Jemaah Islamiyah bombers used a shock-dispersed solid fuel charge,[106] based on the thermobaric principle,[107] to attack the Sari nightclub during the 2002 Bali bombings.[108]

In 2023, an Israeli reporter accused Hamas of firing thermobaric rockets into civilian houses as part of its October 7 surprise attack on Israel.[109][110] Hamas and other Palestinian militant groups such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad have claimed multiple attacks against Israeli forces with thermobaric rockets during the 2023 Israeli ground operation in the Gaza.[111][112]

International law[edit]

International law does not prohibit the use of thermobaric munitions, fuel-air explosive devices, or vacuum bombs against military targets.[113][28] As of March 2024, all past attempts to regulate or restrict thermobaric weapons have failed.[114][28]

According to some scholars, thermobaric weapons are not intrinsically indiscriminate by nature, as they are often engineered for precision targeting capabilities. This precision aspect serves to provide humanitarian advantages by potentially minimizing collateral damage and also lessens the amount of munitions needed to effectively engage with the chosen military goals. Nonetheless, authors holding this view recommend that the use of thermobaric weapons in populated areas should be minimized due to their wide-area impact and multiple harm mechanisms.[115]

In media[edit]

In the 1995 film Outbreak, a thermobaric weapon (referred to as a fuel air bomb) is used to destroy an African village to keep the perfect biological weapon (a virus) a secret, and later nearly used to wipe out a US town to keep the original virus intact.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Harrison, Virginia (1 March 2022). "What are thermobaric weapons and how do they work?". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  2. ^ Türker, Lemi (2016). "Thermobaric and enhanced blast explosives (TBX and EBX)". Defence Technology. 12 (6): 423–445. doi:10.1016/j.dt.2016.09.002. S2CID 138647940.
  3. ^ Klapötke, Thomas M. (2022). Chemistry of High-Energy Materials. doi:10.1515/9783110739503. ISBN 9783110739503.
  4. ^ Yen, Ng Hsiao; Wang, Lee Yiew (2012). "Reactive Metals in Explosives". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 37 (2): 143–155. doi:10.1002/prep.200900050.
  5. ^ Trzciński, Waldemar A.; Maiz, Lotfi (2015). "Thermobaric and Enhanced Blast Explosives - Properties and Testing Methods". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 40 (5): 632–644. doi:10.1002/prep.201400281.
  6. ^ "Libye – l'Otan utilise une bombe FAE | Politique, Algérie" (in French). Algeria ISP. 18 October 2011. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  7. ^ Parsons, Jeff (2 March 2022). "What is a thermobaric weapon? Putin accused of using devastating 'vacuum bomb' in Ukraine". Metro.
  8. ^ Türker, Lemi (1 December 2016). "Thermobaric and enhanced blast explosives (TBX and EBX)". Defence Technology. 12 (6): 423–445. doi:10.1016/j.dt.2016.09.002. ISSN 2214-9147. S2CID 138647940.
  9. ^ Lester W. Grau and Timothy Smith, A 'Crushing' Victory: Fuel-Air Explosives and Grozny 2000, August 2000
  10. ^ "Ukraine conflict: What is a vacuum or thermobaric bomb?". BBC News. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  11. ^ Nettleton, J. Occ. Accidents, 1, 149 (1976).
  12. ^ Strehlow, 14th. Symp. (Int.) Comb. 1189, Comb. Inst. (1973).
  13. ^ Health and Safety Environmental Agency, 5th and final report, 2008.
  14. ^ Brousseau, Patrick; Anderson, C. John (2002). "Nanometric Aluminum in Explosives". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 27 (5): 300–306. doi:10.1002/1521-4087(200211)27:5<300::AID-PREP300>3.0.CO;2-#.
  15. ^ See Nanofuel/Oxidizers For Energetic Compositions – John D. Sullivan and Charles N. Kingery (1994) High explosive disseminator for a high explosive air bomb[dead link]
  16. ^ Slavica Terzić, Mirjana Dakić Kolundžija, Milovan Azdejković and Gorgi Minov (2004) Compatibility Of Thermobaric Mixtures Based On Isopropyl Nitrate And Metal Powders Archived 2012-03-02 at the Wayback Machine.
  17. ^ Meyer, Rudolf; Josef Köhler; Axel Homburg (2007). Explosives. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 312. ISBN 978-3-527-31656-4. OCLC 165404124.
  18. ^ Nettleton, arch. combust. 1,131, (1981).
  19. ^ Stephen B. Murray Fundamental and Applied Studies of Fuel-Air Detonation Archived 2010-01-19 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Nettleton, Comb. and Flame, 24,65 (1975).
  21. ^ Fire Prev. Sci. and Tech. No. 19,4 (1976)
  22. ^ May L.Chan (2001) Advanced Thermobaric Explosive Compositions[dead link].
  23. ^ New Thermobaric Materials and Weapon Concepts Archived 2014-05-18 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Anna E. Wildegger-Gaissmaier (April 2003). "Aspects of thermobaric weaponry" (PDF). ADF Health. 4: 3–6. S2CID 189802993.
  25. ^ a b "Backgrounder on Russian Fuel Air Explosives ("Vacuum Bombs") | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 1 February 2000. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  26. ^ Defense Intelligence Agency, "Future Threat to the Soldier System, Volume I; Dismounted Soldier – Middle East Threat", September 1993, p. 73.
  27. ^ "Main Types of Artillery Ammunition in 1914-1918". passioncompassion1418. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  28. ^ a b c d Hanson, Marianne (2 March 2022). "What are thermobaric weapons? And why should they be banned?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
  29. ^ Karlsch, Rainer (24 September 2007). "Massenvernichtungswaffe: Großvaters Vakuumbombe" [Weapon of Mass Destruction: Grandfather's Vacuum Bomb]. Faz.net (in German). Archived from the original on 11 August 2020. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  30. ^ a b Andrew, D (1 May 2003). "Munitions – Thermobaric Munitions and their Medical Effects!". Australian Military Medicine: 9–12. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  31. ^ a b "Fuel Air Explosive (FAE) systems" (PDF). TNMA. Technical Note 09.30 /04 (Version 1): 2. 1 July 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  32. ^ Hambling, David. "Thermobaric Grenade Brings Down the House? (Updated)". Wired. Archived from the original on 9 March 2023. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  33. ^ David Hambling (2005) "Marines Quiet About Brutal New Weapon" Archived 2015-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ "HELLFIRE Thermobaric Warhead Approved for Production". www.lockheedmartin.com. 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  35. ^ Guest, Tim (10 November 2022). "Thermobarics – Developments and Deployments". European Security & Defence. Archived from the original on 24 March 2023. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  36. ^ "Backgrounder on Russian Fuel Air Explosives ('Vacuum Bombs')". Human Rights Watch. 27 December 2008. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
  37. ^ Kolev, Stefan K.; Tsonev, Tsvetomir T. (2022). "Aluminized Enhanced Blast Explosive Based on Polysiloxane Binder". Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics. 47 (2). doi:10.1002/prep.202100195. S2CID 244902961.
  38. ^ a b Lester W. Grau and Timothy L. Thomas (Marine Corps Gazette, April 2000) "Russian Lessons Learned From the Battles For Grozny" Archived 2010-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
  39. ^ "Modern Firearms – GM-94". Russia: World Guns. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  40. ^ "New RPO Shmel-M Infantry Rocket Flamethrower Man-Packable Thermobaric Weapon". defensereview.com. 19 July 2006. Archived from the original on 27 October 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  41. ^ "Shmel-M: Infantry Rocket-assisted Flamethrower of Enhanced Range and Lethality". Kbptula.ru. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  42. ^ "Modern Firearms – RShG-1". Russia: World Guns. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  43. ^ "Modern Firearms – RMG". Russia: World Guns. 24 January 2011. Archived from the original on 17 August 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  44. ^ "RMG – A new Multi-Purpose Assault Weapon from Bazalt". defense-update.com. 9 November 2008. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  45. ^ "Kornet-EM: Multi-purpose Long-range Missile System". Russia: Kbptula. Archived from the original on 29 December 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  46. ^ "TOS-1 Heavy flamethrower system". military-today.com. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 27 August 2012.
  47. ^ "SS-26". Missilethreat.csis.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  48. ^ "ODAB-500PMV Fuel-Air-Explosive bomb". Rosoboronexport. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2019.
  49. ^ "Russian forces destroy 300 Ukrainian troops in pinpoint air strike". TASS. 16 March 2024. Retrieved 17 March 2024.
  50. ^ Air Power Australia (4 July 2007). "How to Destroy the Australian Defence Force". Ausairpower.net. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  51. ^ "Russia unveils devastating vacuum bomb". ABC News. 2007. Archived from the original on 30 December 2010. Retrieved 12 September 2007.
  52. ^ "Video of test explosion". BBC News. 2007. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2007.
  53. ^ Harding, Luke (12 September 2007). "Russia unveils the father of all bombs". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 16 October 2019. Retrieved 12 September 2007.
  54. ^ a b c d "Serra no descarta que España tenga bombas de aire-combustible" (in Spanish). EDICIONES EL PAÍS. 11 October 1990.
  55. ^ "Pilotos españoles probation la Superbomba Aire-Combustible en un país extranjero, p. 23 – ABC.es". hemeroteca.abc.es (in Spanish). 22 October 1990. Archived from the original on 19 August 2016.
  56. ^ Aguilar, Juan (9 February 2014). "¿Dispone España de armas estratégicas?". www.elespiadigital.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 27 July 2016.
  57. ^ "PF-97 Thermobaric rocket launcher". Military Today. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  58. ^ Lopez, Eddie (8 August 2018). "Will Thermobaric Weapons Overwhelm the Military Health System?". War Room - US Army War College. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  59. ^ "Better than laser?China's thermobaric bomb reaches 2500 degrees high temperature, once exported, the United States will be miserable?". INews. Retrieved 14 March 2022.[permanent dead link]
  60. ^ http://www.iae.cta.br/Arquivos/Relatorio_de_atividades_2011.pdf%7Ctitle=Relatorio[permanent dead link] de atividades 2011|trans-title=2011 Activities Report|publisher=Instituto de Aeronáutica e Espaço [Brazilian Aeronautics and Space Institute]|accessdate=20 November 2015
  61. ^ a b Norton-Taylor, Richard (28 May 2009). "MoD admits use of controversial 'enhanced blast' weapons in Afghanistan". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  62. ^ Kay, Linda (3 May 2018). "UK Troops Using Deadly 'Thermobaric' Weapons In Syrian Civil War: Report". Defense World. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  63. ^ Cole, Chris (3 May 2018). "MoD accidentally reveals British drones firing thermobaric missiles in Syria". Defense World. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  64. ^ Kay, Linda (2 May 2018). "UK Troops Using Deadly 'Thermobaric' Weapons In Syrian Civil War: Report". Drone Wars. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  65. ^ "120 mm Thermobaric (TB) Ammunition For MBT Arjun | Defence Research and Development Organisation – DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Government of India". www.drdo.gov.in. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  66. ^ "120 mm Penetration Cum Blast (PCB) and Thermobaric (TB) Ammunition For MBT Arjun | Defence Research and Development Organisation - DRDO, Ministry of Defence, Government of India". www.drdo.gov.in. Archived from the original on 26 May 2021.
  67. ^ "Fire-power of DRDO's Arjun Tank takes quantum jump with new ammunition: MoD". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  68. ^ "Thermobaric Hand Grenade TG-1". Balkan Novoteh. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
  69. ^ "Ukraine developed a new thermobaric weapon". UAWire. 29 July 2017.
  70. ^ "Ukrainian Defense Review". No. #4. Defense Express. October–December 2017. p. 32.
  71. ^ Gyűrösi, Miroslav (December 2018). "ADEX-2018 cz. 2". Zespół Badán I Analiz Militarnych Sp. Z O.O.
  72. ^ Hambling, David (May 2024). "Thermobaric Drones Blast Russian Positions". Forbes.
  73. ^ Brehm, Maya (2010). "Protecting Civilians from the Effects of Explosive Weapons An Analysis of International Legal and Policy Standards" (PDF). United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research.
  74. ^ CBU-72 / BLU-73/B Fuel/Air Explosive (FAE) - Dumb Bombs
  75. ^ "US Uses Bunker-Busting 'Thermobaric' Bomb for First Time". Commondreams.org. 3 March 2002. Archived from the original on 12 January 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  76. ^ Franchi, Peter La (22 December 2003). "China starts on thermobaric bomb". Flight Global. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  77. ^ "New Missiles Floored Enemy In Iraq - CBS News". www.cbsnews.com. The Associated Press. 14 May 2003. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 23 September 2023.
  78. ^ "Fact Sheet: Russia's Use of Thermobaric Weapons in Ukraine". Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  79. ^ Swearingen, Jake (14 September 2015). "This Russian Tank-Mounted Rocket Launcher Can Incinerate 8 City Blocks". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  80. ^ Gordon, Yefim; Komissarov, Dmitriy (2019). Mikoyan MiG-23 and MiG-27. Manchester: Crecy. p. 369. ISBN 978-1-910809-31-0. OCLC 1108690733. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 24 October 2021.
  81. ^ "Foreign Military Studies Office Publications – A 'Crushing' Victory: Fuel-Air Explosives and Grozny 2000". Fmso.leavenworth.army.mil. Archived from the original on 8 May 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
  82. ^ "Russian forces faulted in Beslan school tragedy". Christian Science Monitor. 1 September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 September 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  83. ^ Russia: Independent Beslan Investigation Sparks Controversy Archived 2006-08-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Jamestown Foundation, 29 August 2006
  84. ^ Beslan still a raw nerve for Russia Archived 2012-05-20 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 1 September 2006
  85. ^ Aching to Know Archived 2011-06-24 at the Wayback Machine, Los Angeles Times, 27 August 2005
  86. ^ Searching for Traces of "Shmel" in Beslan School Archived 2009-01-03 at the Wayback Machine, Kommersant, 12 September 2005
  87. ^ A Reversal Over Beslan Only Fuels Speculation Archived 2011-09-03 at the Wayback Machine, The Moscow Times, 21 July 2005
  88. ^ Zitser, Joshua. "Russian army deploys its TOS-1 heavy flamethrower capable of vaporizing human bodies near Ukrainian border, footage shows". Business Insider Africa. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  89. ^ "What are thermobaric weapons?". ABC News. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  90. ^ "Oil depot burns after artillery shelling in Okhtyrka, Sumy Oblast". Kyiv Independent. 28 February 2022. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 28 February 2022 – via Twitter. Mayor Pavlo Kuzmenko reported that Russian occupiers dropped a vacuum bomb.
  91. ^ Zengerle, Patricia (1 March 2022). "Ukraine envoy to U.S. says Russia used a vacuum bomb in its invasion". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  92. ^ Kay, Linda (3 May 2018). "UK Troops Using Deadly 'Thermobaric' Weapons In Syrian Civil War: Report". Defense World. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  93. ^ "Unleashing the Unprecedented: The Controversial Use of Thermobaric Bombs in Recent Conflicts". Financial Express. 21 October 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  94. ^ a b "Israel takes revenge on Palestinian armed factions by mass killing civilians in Gaza". Euro-Med Human Rights Monitor. 9 October 2023. Retrieved 5 November 2023.
  95. ^ Satam, Parth (8 November 2023). "Israel 'Blows-Up' Hamas Bunkers With 'Secretive' Hellfire Missiles Loaded On AH-64D Choppers - Reports". Latest Asian, Middle-East, EurAsian, Indian News. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  96. ^ "Syria rebels say Assad using 'mass-killing weapons' in Aleppo". Ynetnews. 10 October 2012. Archived from the original on 12 July 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  97. ^ "Dropping Thermobaric Bombs on Residential Areas in Syria_ Nov. 5. 2012". First Post. 11 November 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2013. Retrieved 11 November 2012.
  98. ^ a b DeGhett, Torie Rose (28 August 2015). "A New Kind of Bomb Is Being Used in Syria and It's a Humanitarian Nightmare". www.vice.com. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021.
  99. ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (4 June 2013). "U.N. Panel Reports Increasing Brutality by Both Sides in Syria". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
  100. ^ Ullah, Areeb (22 February 2018). "Eastern Ghouta home of 'Noor and Alaa' destroyed by Syrian bombs". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021.
  101. ^ "Thermobaric Bombs And Other Nightmare Weapons Of The Syrian Civil War". Popular Science. Recurrent. 18 March 2019. Archived from the original on 11 June 2021.
  102. ^ "The latest military situation of the Russia-Ukraine conflict: Ukraine is open, a grenade blows up a Russian infantry fighting vehicle". IMedia. 7 March 2023.[permanent dead link]
  103. ^ Richard J. Grunawalt. Hospital Ships In The War On Terror: Sanctuaries or Targets? Archived 2013-04-01 at the Wayback Machine (PDF), Naval War College Review, Winter 2005, pp. 110–11.
  104. ^ Paul Rogers (2000) "Politics in the Next 50 Years: The Changing Nature of International Conflict" Archived 2019-10-19 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ J. Gilmore Childers; Henry J. DePippo (24 February 1998). "Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information hearing on "Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center"". Fas. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
  106. ^ P. Neuwald; H. Reichenbach; A. L. Kuhl (2003). "Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges-Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2017. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
  107. ^ David Eshel (2006). "Is the world facing Thermobaric Terrorism?". Archived from the original on 7 June 2011.
  108. ^ Wayne Turnbull (2003). "Bali:Preparations". Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 19 July 2008.
  109. ^ "Hamas supplies suggest strategy for long-term occupation in Israel". IANS English; New Delhi. IANS. 16 October 2023.
  110. ^ Zitun, Yoav (16 October 2023). "Captured weapons shed light on stunning extent of Hamas's battle blueprint". Ynetnews. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  111. ^ "IRAN UPDATE, DECEMBER 23, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 24 December 2023.
  112. ^ "IRAN UPDATE, DECEMBER 26, 2023". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 27 December 2023.
  113. ^ "Ukraine's ambassador to US says Russia used a vacuum bomb, international groups say banned cluster munitions used to strike shelter". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  114. ^ Seidel, Jamie (27 February 2022). "Father of all bombs': Russia's brutal weapon". news.com.au. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  115. ^ van Coller, Arthur (June 2023). "Detonating the air: The legality of the use of thermobaric weapons under international humanitarian law". International Review of the Red Cross. 923. Retrieved 7 November 2023.

External links[edit]